ntukso language code dot

morEndukaliso languages like Ygens, Dilm, and Kaed are descended from Endukaliso. Endukaliso words and phonemes will be marked like this.

Endukaliso is the source of the Ovim runes (named after the first four letters), which were used for writing it and neighboring languages before the adoption of the Omlirt alphabet. Some runes were also borrowed by several languages to represent sounds missing from the Omlirt alphabet.


unrounded rounded
orthography j i a w o
IPA /i/ /ɨ/ /a/ /u/ /ɔ/
some allophones [e ɛ] [ɘ ɪ] [æ ɑ] [ʊ] [o ə]

a- au ai ao aj
o- ou oi oj
i- ia io iu
j-* w-* all vowels

* In some cases this may be /j/ or /w/, see the rules for allophones below

Labials Dentals / Alveolar Velars
Nasals m n ŋ
Stops b d k*
Sibilant s* ts* z
Non-Sibilant Fricative f* v θ* ð h*
Glides j w
Flap / Trill ɾ

Unvoiced consonants marked with *

Positional variants and allophones: [m n ŋ], [s ts z], [f θ], [v ð], [ɾ r], [ⱱ ʀ], [j i], [w u].

Variant rules Vowel rules

The vowel i is voiceless and unwritten before a trill or tap and between voiceless consonants.

Vowels are long:


The basic word form is (C)V(V)(C). Note that in some cases doubled consonants are written to show that the previous vowel is long. Additionally, i is not always written, especially in final syllables. A word can start with:

The nucleus is one or two vowels in the case of a diphthong, or a glide and a vowel. Vowels and diphthongs can be short or long

Mid-word consonant clusters span two consonants and can consist of:

Words can end with:


All content words must have at least three morae. A short vowel or diphthong is one mora. A long vowel or diphthong is two morae. A coda consonant is one mora. A final consonant cluster is two morae. The stress is placed on the left-most, in order of priority, super-heavy syllable, heavy syllable, or second syllable.

Ovim Runes

The order and meaning of the Ovim runes are known from a variety of rune poems, some collected by early linguist Karakkil. Modern depictions are generally based on his record of the runes and their meanings, part of which is shown below.

ovim runes

They were generally carved into stone, bone, or horn. If carved into wood, the horizontal lines were drawn on a slant.

Aside from being used to spell words, each letter also had multiple meanings, based on its origin, association, and symbolic meanings, used interchangeably in inscriptions. There are copious examples in museums, including signposts, monuments, everyday writings, and as decoration on jewelry, weapons, combs, and other items. Runes could be written in any direction, mirrored, or inverted, especially in charms, spells, and prayers.

Each rune has a traditional name, however in daughter languages the name may not start with the associated letter.

The vowel /a/ is considered the default and is not written unless long, in a diphthong, or starting or ending a word.

Meanings and sounds

transliteration o v i m f
phonemes o v / ð ɨ m / n / ŋ f / θ
  • oddo
  • /ˈɔːd.dɔ/
  • (horse)
  • vjivrw
  • /ˈvjɨːð.ɾu/
  • (person)
  • ikaha
  • /ɨ.ˈka.haː/
  • (river)
  • moriaddr
  • /nɔ.ˈrɨad.dɨ̥r/
  • (hall, home)
  • fwdis
  • /θu.ˈdɨs/
  • (chicken)
  • horse
  • journey
  • hunt, search
  • four
  • north
  • person
  • work
  • small
  • river, water
  • rain
  • hope
  • speed
  • east
  • hall, home
  • safety
  • center
  • today
  • bird, chicken
  • family
  • year
  • tomorrow
transliteration r w d s a
phonemes ɾ / r w / u d s / ts / z a
  • rikaddvof
  • /ˈrɨː.kaːd.ðɔθ//
  • (fire)
  • whsaivroʀ
  • /uh.ˈsaɨːð.ɾɔʀ/
  • (boat)
  • damjss
  • /da.ˈmiːz/
  • (day)
  • savis
  • /ˈtsaː.vɨs/
  • (summer)
  • akksia
  • /ˈaːk.sɨa/
  • (spell)
  • fire
  • hearth
  • beacon
  • help
  • joy
  • shield, boat
  • protection
  • make, craft
  • day
  • complete
  • child
  • west
  • heat, summer
  • season
  • success
  • past
  • sun
  • spell
  • god
  • story, write, tell
transliteration k b j ʀ h
phonemes k b j / i ⱱ ʀ h
  • kiavsa
  • /ˈkɨaː
  • (food, meal)
  • bajbaharm
  • /ˈːɾm/
  • (harvest)
  • jirss
  • /ˈjɨɾz/
  • (night)
  • ʀosaok
  • /ʀɔː.ˈsaɔk/
  • (tree, trunk)
  • hiriah
  • /hɨː.ˈɾɨah/
  • (hunger, need)
  • animal
  • food, meal
  • good, morality
  • hospitality
  • net, basket
  • plenty, bounty
  • harvest
  • night
  • sleep
  • hide
  • oath
  • future
  • tree, fruit
  • gift
  • strength
  • wolf
  • hunger, need
  • endurance
  • south