morEndukaliso languages like Ygens, Dilm, and Kaed are descended from Endukaliso. Endukaliso words and phonemes will be marked like this.
Endukaliso is the source of the Ovim runes (named after the first four letters), which were used for writing it and neighboring languages before the adoption of the Omlirt alphabet. Some runes were also borrowed by several languages to represent sounds missing from the Omlirt alphabet.
|some allophones||[e ɛ]||[ɘ ɪ]||[æ ɑ]||[ʊ]||[o ə]|
|a-||au ai ao aj|
|o-||ou oi oj|
|i-||ia io iu|
|j-* w-*||all vowels|
* In some cases this may be /j/ or /w/, see the rules for allophones below
|Labials||Dentals / Alveolar||Velars|
|Sibilant||s* ts* z|
|Non-Sibilant Fricative||f* v||θ* ð||h*|
|Flap / Trill||ⱱ||ɾ
Unvoiced consonants marked with *
Positional variants and allophones: [m n ŋ], [s ts z], [f θ], [v ð], [ɾ r], [ⱱ ʀ], [j i], [w u].Variant rules
- Trills turn to taps in the middle of words, and in clusters with anything but /h/, except at the end or beginning of a word.
- Glides before a vowel turn to vowels unless after a flap, stop, or nasal, or at the start of a word.
- At the beginning of a word or morpheme, the nasal is [n]
- At the end of a word, if not in a cluster, the nasal is [ŋ]
- The nasal is [ŋ] before /k/ and /h/
- Geminated /s/ is pronounced [z]
- The sibilant is [ts] at the start of a morpheme.
- The fricative is dental next to nasals, glides, and /k/.
- A geminated fricative is /vv/ or /ff/
- At the end of a word, the unvoiced fricative is /θ/
- At the start of a word and in clusters, the voiced fricative is /ð/.
- In clusters the unvoiced fricative is /f/
The vowel i is voiceless and unwritten before a trill or tap and between voiceless consonants.
Vowels are long:
- before a nasal or geminated consonant
- after a trill
- before a voiced fricative
- after /h/
The basic word form is (C)V(V)(C). Note that in some cases doubled consonants are written to show that the previous vowel is long. Additionally, i is not always written, especially in final syllables. A word can start with:
- any consonant
- s + stop
- nasal + stop
- fricative + trill
- non-sibilant fricative + nasal
- h + stop
- h + f
The nucleus is one or two vowels in the case of a diphthong, or a glide and a vowel. Vowels and diphthongs can be short or long
Mid-word consonant clusters span two consonants and can consist of:
- any consonant
- stop + tap
- fricative + tap
- non-velar fricative + tap
- nasal + stop + fricative
- /z/ + stop
- non-sibilant fricative + s
- stop + non-velar fricative
Words can end with:
- any consonant
- tap + stop + s
- tap + long stop + s
- tap + non-sibilant fricative + s
- tap + long /f v/ + s
- nasal + stop + s
- nasal + long stop + s
- nasal + non-sibilant fricative + s
- nasal + long /f v/ + s
- s + fricative + stop
- s + fricative + long stop
- s + fricative + nasal
- tap + fricative + stop
- tap + fricative + long stop
- tap + fricative + nasal
- nasal + s
- nasal + trill
- stop + s
- stop + trill
- /f v/ + s
- /f v/ + trill
All content words must have at least three morae. A short vowel or diphthong is one mora. A long vowel or diphthong is two morae. A coda consonant is one mora. A final consonant cluster is two morae. The stress is placed on the left-most, in order of priority, super-heavy syllable, heavy syllable, or second syllable.
The order and meaning of the Ovim runes are known from a variety of rune poems, some collected by early linguist Karakkil. Modern depictions are generally based on his record of the runes and their meanings, part of which is shown below.
They were generally carved into stone, bone, or horn. If carved into wood, the horizontal lines were drawn on a slant.
Aside from being used to spell words, each letter also had multiple meanings, based on its origin, association, and symbolic meanings, used interchangeably in inscriptions. There are copious examples in museums, including signposts, monuments, everyday writings, and as decoration on jewelry, weapons, combs, and other items. Runes could be written in any direction, mirrored, or inverted, especially in charms, spells, and prayers.
Each rune has a traditional name, however in daughter languages the name may not start with the associated letter.
The vowel /a/ is considered the default and is not written unless long, in a diphthong, or starting or ending a word.
Meanings and sounds
|phonemes||o||v / ð||ɨ||m / n / ŋ||f / θ|
|phonemes||ɾ / r||w / u||d||s / ts / z||a|
|phonemes||k||b||j / i||ⱱ ʀ||h|